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Over-prosperity, the truly effective whitening, light spot ingredient-kojic acid

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Cosmetics is a fashion and fashion industry. Every year, new ingredients will come out. Every one is in the lead for three or five years. You can sing and I will be on the stage. Many very popular ingredients, with the passage of time, are gradually forgotten. But some ingredients, though fading, still stand firm and are still being applied. These ingredients certainly have their unique effects. Among many classical ingredients, "kojic acid" is one of them.

曲酸在化妆品成分中的经历,和很多人生一样历经坎坷。从开始爆红,到跌下神坛,被禁止使用,到后来平反,重新被应用,前前后后几十年。现在来看,对曲酸的研究已经非常详尽了。今天就聊聊曲酸

The experience of kojic acid in cosmetic ingredients is as frustrating as many people's lives. From the beginning, to the fall of the altar, it was forbidden to use, to the later rebellion, it was re-applied, around decades. Now, the study of kojic acid has been very detailed. Today I'm going to talk about kojic acid.

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About "kojic acid"

曲酸可以通过多种物质,以曲霉(一种真菌)发酵的方式制得,纯曲酸主要是葡萄糖发酵生产。曲酸是一种小分子成分,分子量142.22,可以直接透皮吸收。曲酸的英文名称为: Kojic acid。成分别名:2-羟甲基-5-羟基-γ-吡喃酮。

Kojic acid can be produced by fermentation of Aspergillus (a fungus) with various substances. Pure kojic acid is mainly produced by fermentation of glucose. Kojic acid is a small molecular component with a molecular weight of 142.22, which can be directly absorbed through the skin. Kojic acid is the English name of kojic acid. Ingredient alias: 2-hydroxymethyl-5-hydroxy-γ - pyranone.

曲酸自从被发现以来,最先被用在食品、医药、农业等领域。在食品领域,可用作食品添加剂,起到保鲜、防腐、抗氧化作用。后来,有研究机构发现,曲酸具有良好的美白效果,可以淡化色斑。这个应用被发现后,曲酸开始作为皮肤增白剂,广泛应用在美白、淡斑产品中。

Since its discovery, kojic acid has been first used in food, medicine, agriculture and other fields. In the field of food, it can be used as food additive to keep fresh, preserve and antioxidant. Later, some research institutes found that kojic acid had good whitening effect and could dilute the spots. After the discovery of this application, "kojic acid" began to be used as skin whitening agent, widely used in whitening, light spot products.

我们知道,黑色素是导致皮肤变黑,出现色斑的核心成分,抑制黑色素的生成,可以起到美白、淡斑的效果。而在黑色素生成过程中,酪氨酸酶是必不可少的催化剂。曲酸可以和酪氨酸酶抢夺铜离子,使酪氨酸酶失去活性,阻断黑色素的生成,达到美白、淡斑的目的。

We know that "melanin" is the core ingredient that causes skin darkening and spots. Inhibiting the production of melanin can play a whitening and light spot effect. In the process of melanin production, tyrosinase is an indispensable catalyst. Kojic acid and tyrosinase can grab copper ions, deactivate tyrosinase, block the production of melanin, and achieve the purpose of whitening and light spots.

有些小伙伴对成分不是特别了解,看到曲酸,马上和果酸联系在一起。实际上,曲酸果酸的美白机制完全不同,不会剥脱角质细胞,也不会使角质层变薄。

Some small partners do not have a special understanding of the ingredients, see that "kojic acid" has "acid", immediately linked with "fruit acid". In fact, the whitening mechanism of kojic acid and fructonic acid is completely different. They do not exfoliate keratinocytes or make the cuticle thinner.

经过多年的对比研究,以及大量消费者的实际体验,公认曲酸具有出色的美白、淡斑效果。曾经是氢醌之后,美白的黄金标准。以至于现在很多美白原料在推广时,经常以抑制酪氨酸酶的效果是曲酸多少倍来做为宣传口号。很多欧美的皮肤科医生,用2-4%的曲酸来给患者治疗黄褐斑,取得了不错的效果。感兴趣的小伙伴可以搜索一下,无论是英文文献,还是中文文献,关于曲酸治疗黄褐斑的论述非常多。

After years of comparative research, as well as the actual experience of a large number of consumers, it is recognized that "kojic acid" has excellent whitening and light spot effect. It used to be the gold standard for whitening after "hydroquinone". So many whitening materials in the promotion now, often with "inhibition of tyrosinase is how many times the effect of kojic acid" as a slogan for publicity. Many dermatologists in Europe and the United States use 2-4% kojic acid to treat chloasma, and have achieved good results. Interested partners can search, whether in English or Chinese literature, there are many discussions about "kojic acid" in the treatment of chloasma.

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Safety of kojic acid

既然曲酸效果这么好,为什么后来被禁用了呢?前面我们说过,曲酸在食品工业中也有广泛的应用。但早期提取技术不行。在日本,一些含有未知杂质的低品级曲酸,会使虾类、鳕鱼籽变黑,人们开始怀疑曲酸的安全性。

Since kojic acid works so well, why was it banned later? As we said before, kojic acid is also widely used in food industry. But early extraction technology is not good. In Japan, some low-grade kojic acid containing unknown impurities can blacken shrimp and COD seeds, and people begin to doubt the safety of kojic acid.

1995-2003年之间,日本健康科学研究所完成曲酸的诱变性和致癌性实验。实验结果大部分是阴性(代表不会致癌),但也有少量动物的甲状腺和肝脏出现阳性(会致癌)反应。虽然是少量,但事关人体健康,马虎不得。加上很多化妆品厂家为了达到快速见效的目的,过度高浓度使用曲酸,关于曲酸会致敏、引起皮炎的不良反应大量出现。在2003年初,在日本持续使用20多年的有效美白剂曲酸,被禁止在食品中添加,并冻结销售含有曲酸的保养品。因为安全性上的顾虑,曲酸在市场上沉寂了一段时间。

Between 1995 and 2003, the Japanese Institute of Health Sciences completed the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity experiments of kojic acid. Most of the results were negative (representing non-carcinogenic), but a small number of animals showed positive (carcinogenic) thyroid and liver reactions. Although it's a small amount, it's a matter of human health, not sloppy. In addition, many cosmetics manufacturers in order to achieve rapid results, excessive use of high concentration of kojic acid, on the "kojic acid" will sensitize, causing dermatitis, a large number of adverse reactions. In early 2003, kojic acid, an effective whitening agent that has been used for more than 20 years in Japan, was banned from adding to food and frozen the sale of maintenance products containing kojic acid. Because of safety concerns, kojic acid has been quiet in the market for some time.

后来,日本于2005年重新开放化妆品中可以添加,虽然没有明确限用规范,但建议用量在0.1%~1%之间。

Later, Japan reopened its cosmetics in 2005. Although there was no specific restriction, the recommended dosage ranged from 0.1% to 1%.

对于曲酸的安全性,到底会不会致癌,世界各地的学者有做了大量的研究,感兴趣的小伙伴可以自己搜索一下,英文资料,描述非常详细。甄垚简单介绍一下最终结论:曲酸不是急性、慢性、生殖毒性物质,虽然一些动物数据提示肿瘤促进和弱致癌,但曲酸从人体皮肤吸收到循环中非常缓慢,很可能达不到这些效果的阈值。曲酸在化妆品中2%以下浓度是安全的。

As for the safety of kojic acid, whether it is carcinogenic or not, scholars around the world have done a lot of research. Interested partners can search for it by themselves. The information in English is very detailed. Zhan Biao briefly introduced the final conclusion: kojic acid is not an acute, chronic, reproductive toxic substance. Although some animal data suggest that cancer promotes and weakens carcinogenesis, kojic acid is absorbed very slowly from human skin to circulation, and may not reach the threshold of these effects. Kojic acid is safe below 2% in cosmetics.

有研究表明,使用含有1%乳酸的膏霜涂抹面部,分别在0.511.53, 6, 1224小时测试使用者血液中曲酸的含量,所有浓度血浆仅略高于1 ng的正常值,没有观察到不良反应。曲酸通过皮肤进入血液量非常低,对人体的影响很小。通过大鼠实验,证实曲酸没有生殖毒性,不会导致胎儿畸变或产生生殖毒物。而这个实验还是喂食的属于,如果通过皮肤涂抹,更是不用担心。

Studies have shown that the use of cream containing 1% lactic acid on the face, respectively in 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24 hours to test the content of kojic acid in the blood of users, all concentrations of plasma is only slightly higher than the normal value of 1 ng, no adverse reactions were observed. Kojic acid enters the blood very low through the skin and has little effect on the human body. It was proved that kojic acid had no reproductive toxicity and would not cause fetal distortion or produce reproductive toxicity through rat experiments. And this experiment belongs to feeding, if it is applied through the skin, don't worry about it.

在实际应用中,大量的统计数据显示,没有长期使用曲酸的消费者出现肝功能异常,包括肝脏肿瘤和皮肤癌。

In practice, a large number of statistical data show that consumers who do not use kojic acid for a long time have abnormal liver function, including liver tumors and skin cancer.

关于曲酸的安全性,经过几十年的研究,基本上可以得出结论,在限定范围以内,在化妆品中应用是安全的,不用担心。

With regard to the safety of kojic acid, after decades of research, it can be basically concluded that the application of kojic acid in cosmetics is safe within the limited range, so don't worry about it.

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Sensitization of kojic acid

曲酸经常被人诟病,除了安全性,另外一个就是致敏性。关于曲酸的致敏性,也有大量的报道,那么真实情况到底如何呢?

Kojic acid is often criticized for its safety and allergenicity. There are also a lot of reports about the allergenicity of kojic acid, so what is the real situation?

国内外独立的研究机构也做了大量的测试,把1%3%的曲酸溶液和SLS(月桂醇硫酸酯钠,一种清洁成分,常见于洗面奶中)做了对比试验。得出曲酸是一种轻度皮肤刺激物。这个结论没有考虑化妆品中应用曲酸时,会添加各种复配成分,降低曲酸的刺激性。

Independent research institutes at home and abroad have also done a lot of tests. A comparative test was made between 1% and 3% kojic acid solution and SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate, a cleaning ingredient commonly found in face wash milk). It is concluded that kojic acid is a mild skin irritant. This conclusion does not take into account the use of kojic acid in cosmetics, will add various components, reduce the irritation of kojic acid.

220名女性患者进行的贴斑试验中,没有证据显示2%以下的曲酸产品会引起接触性皮炎。在光毒性方面,证实曲酸没有光毒性,也没有引起延迟接触反应。因此,含有曲酸的产品白天是可以使用的。

In the patch test of 220 female patients, there was no evidence that less than 2% of kojic acid products could cause contact dermatitis. In terms of phototoxicity, it was confirmed that kojic acid had no phototoxicity and did not cause delayed contact reaction. Therefore, products containing kojic acid can be used during the day.

这些研究报告,都是独立研究机构做的研究,没有直接利益关系,可信性还是很高的。那么,为什么那么多使用曲酸过敏的报道呢?

These studies are all conducted by independent research institutes. They have no direct interest relationship and are highly credible. So why are there so many reports of kojic acid allergy?

甄垚可以谈一些自己了解的内幕。国外不了解,就国内来说,曲酸曾经是美白、祛斑界当红炸子鸡,很多厂家都推出过含有曲酸的产品。如果在限定范围以内,温和性是没有问题的。但消费者出现色斑,普遍心态比较急躁,需要快速解决问题。很多厂家为了迎合消费者这种需求,曲酸添加量超过2%,甚至超过4%,过高浓度的曲酸会刺激皮肤,引起过敏反应。有的厂家会在产品中添加激素,抑制过敏反应。但长期使用,总有激素压制不住那一天,皮肤问题开始总爆发,严重的会引起面部皮炎。

Zhen Biao can talk about some of the insights he knows. Foreign countries do not understand, as far as domestic, "kojic acid" used to be a red fried chicken in whitening and freckle-removing fields, many manufacturers have introduced products containing kojic acid. If within the limits, moderation is not a problem. However, consumers appear stains, the general mentality is more impatient, need to solve the problem quickly. Many manufacturers in order to meet the needs of consumers, kojic acid added more than 2%, or even more than 4%, too high concentration of kojic acid will stimulate the skin, causing allergic reactions. Some manufacturers add hormones to their products to inhibit allergic reactions. But long-term use, there are always hormones can not suppress that day, skin problems began to erupt, serious can cause facial dermatitis.

加上2003年日本禁用,曲酸的负面消息开始流传,大部分消费者并不了解真相。一个好好的成分,就这样被消费者和商家给玩死了。新的美白成分不断涌现,国内厂家以跟潮流见长,真正使用曲酸的产品很少了。只要日系的高丝集团在高端品牌中还在使用,比如贵妇产品黛珂莹润粹白菁华液

Together with the ban on kojic acid in Japan in 2003, negative news began to circulate, and most consumers did not know the truth. A good ingredient, so that consumers and businesses to play to death. New whitening ingredients are constantly emerging. Domestic manufacturers are good at keeping up with the trend. There are few products that really use kojic acid. As long as Japan's high-end high-wire group is still in use in high-end brands, such as the noble woman product "Daike Yingying Essence".

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Stability of kojic acid

曲酸被大多数厂家抛弃,除了上面的负面消息,还有一个重要的原因,就是稳定性。和所有的美白产品一样,曲酸怕光、怕高温,在这些环境中容易分解、氧化。

"Kojic acid" was abandoned by most manufacturers, in addition to the above negative news, there is also an important reason is "stability". Like all whitening products, "kojic acid" is light-proof and high temperature-prone to decomposition and oxidation in these environments.

如何做出在货架期内都保持稳定的曲酸产品,不会氧化分解,对配方师挑战很大。曲酸对PH的要求比较高,在PH4的环境中,可以耐受高温挑战,如果产品PH值超过5,很容易氧化变质。

How to make kojic acid products which are stable during shelf life and will not be oxidized and decomposed is a great challenge to the formulator. Kojic acid has a high requirement for PH. It can withstand the challenge of high temperature in the environment with PH value 4. If the product's PH value exceeds 5, it is easy to oxidize and deteriorate.

所以,如果白天使用含有曲酸的产品,要做好防晒,保护曲酸作用于皮肤。如果长期不用,放置到冰箱冷藏,有助于保湿曲酸的活性,延长保质期。

Therefore, if you use products containing kojic acid during the day, you should do a good job of sun protection, protect kojic acid on the skin. If it is not used for a long time, it will be helpful for the activity of moisturizing kojic acid and prolong the shelf life if it is placed in the refrigerator for refrigeration.

市场上的曲酸产品

Kojic acid products on the market

市场上著名的曲酸产品,黛珂莹润粹白菁华液算是一个,已经发展了好几代。净含量:40ml,零售价:1050.00元,如下图:

The famous kojic acid product on the market, "Daike Yingyun Baijingye" is a kind of product, which has developed for several generations. Net content: 40ml, retail price: 1050.00 yuan, as follows:

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This whitening essence contains 1% kojic acid, with a variety of antioxidants. There's no time for analysis today. I'll write more later.

另外一个含有曲酸的人气产品是韩国东星制药琅丝东星曲酸小黑瓶面霜,净含量:70g,零售价:238.00元。如下图:

Another popular product containing kojic acid is "Korea Dongxing pharmaceutical Lang Si Dongxing kojic acid small black bottle cream", net content: 70g, retail price: 238 yuan. The following picture:

 

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This cream has not yet officially entered the country, sales channels are more complex, touted as freckle artifact, all kinds of exaggerated hype, the use of experience everywhere. Zhenbiao could not find his full ingredient table, but from the advertising materials and a composition table on a commercial website, kojic acid content of 1%, has whitening effect, but also has the role of light spots, but for more serious spots, the effect will not be very good.

甄垚自己开发的朗诗妮顿双萃焕采精华液,其中的一个重要美白成分也是曲酸,含量1%。产品正在工厂生产,很快会和大家见面,我先放一张图片出来吧。如下图:

Zhen's own "rance Shi Ni Tong Shuang Xie Huan Cai essence", one of the important whitening ingredients is also "kojic acid", the content of 1%. The product is being manufactured in the factory. I will meet you soon. Let me put out a picture first. The following picture:

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To sum up, "kojic acid" is an excellent whitening, light spot ingredient, after decades of research and application, is a classic ingredient tested. As long as the dosage is within a certain range, there is no problem of safety and no allergic reaction. Kojic acid can really whiten, not the brightening feeling of VC. If the whitening effect of VC is expressed by transparency, the effect of kojic acid is milky white. The combination of the two is the best.

 

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Over-prosperity, the truly effective whitening, light spot ingredient-kojic acid

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